According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2019, the top 10 causes of death accounted for 55% of the 55.4 million deaths worldwide. The top global causes of death are linked with three broad topics- cardiovascular (heart disease, stroke), respiratory (respiratory infections) and neonatal conditions (birth trauma, neonatal infections, and birth complications). Globally, 7 of the 10 leading causes of death in 2019 were non-communicable diseases. These seven causes accounted for 44% of all deaths. Yet, all non-communicable diseases together accounted for 74% of deaths all over the world in 2019. The world’s biggest killer is heart disease, responsible for 16% of the world’s total deaths. Since 2000, the largest increase in deaths has been for this disease. Stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are the 2nd and 3rd key causes of death and then comes lower respiratory infections- the 4th leading cause of death.
Average 17.79 million Deaths Noted by Cardiovascular Diseases.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.
Average 9.56 million Deaths Noted by Cancer.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.
More than 3.91 million Deaths Noted by Respiratory Diseases.
Respiratory diseases, or lung diseases, are pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange difficult in air-breathing animals. They include conditions of the respiratory tract including the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleurae, pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of respiration. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, influenza, and pharyngitis to life-threatening diseases such as bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, tuberculosis, acute asthma, lung cancer, and severe acute respiratory syndromes, such as COVID-19. Respiratory diseases can be classified in many different ways, including by the organ or tissue involved, by the type and pattern of associated signs and symptoms, or by the cause of the disease.
Average 2.38 million Deaths Noted by Digestive Diseases.
The digestive system made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI), liver, pancreas, and gallbladder helps the body digest food. Digestion is important for breaking down food into nutrients, which your body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair.
Average 1.32 million Deaths Noted by Liver Diseases.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver. Whenever the course of the problem lasts long, chronic liver disease ensues.
Average 1.18 million Deaths Noted by Tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections show no symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those affected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically called consumption due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.
Average 2.56 million Deaths Noted by Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a term often used as a synonym for pneumonia but can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue. A routine chest X-ray is not always necessary for people who have symptoms of a lower respiratory tract infection.
Average 1.23 million Deaths Noted by Kidney Diseases.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney. Nephritis is an inflammatory kidney disease and has several types according to the location of the inflammation. Inflammation can be diagnosed by blood tests. Nephrosis is non-inflammatory kidney disease. Nephritis and nephrosis can give rise to nephritic syndrome and nephrotic syndrome respectively. Kidney disease usually causes a loss of kidney function to some degree and can result in kidney failure, the complete loss of kidney function. Kidney failure is known as the end-stage of kidney disease, where dialysis or a kidney transplant is the only treatment option.
Average 1.57 million Deaths Noted by Diarrhea Diseases.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and irritable behaviour. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin color, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes more severe. Loose but non-watery stools in babies who are exclusively breastfed, however, are normal.
Average 954,492 Deaths Noted by HIV/AIDS.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a retrovirus. Following initial infection a person may not notice any symptoms, or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. If the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors which are otherwise rare in people who have normal immune function. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also associated with unintended weight loss.
Average 2.51 million Deaths Noted by Dementia.
Dementia occurs as a set of related symptoms when the brain is damaged by disease. The symptoms involve progressive impairments to memory, thinking, and behavior, that affect the ability to perform everyday activities. Other common symptoms include emotional problems, difficulties with language, and decreased motivation. Dementia is not a disorder of consciousness, and consciousness is not usually affected. A diagnosis of dementia requires a change from a person’s usual mental functioning, and a greater cognitive decline than that due to normal aging. Several diseases, and injuries to the brain such as a stroke, can give rise to dementia. Dementia has a significant effect on the individual, relationships and caregivers. In DSM-5, dementia has been reclassified as a major neurocognitive disorder, with varying degrees of severity, and many causative subtypes.
Average 184,934 Deaths Noted by Alcohol use Disorders.
Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol that results in significant mental or physical health problems. Alcoholism is not a recognized diagnostic entity. Predominant diagnostic classifications are alcohol use disorder (DSM-5) or alcohol dependence (ICD-11).
Average 619,827 Deaths Noted by Malaria.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases, it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.
Average 126,391 Deaths Noted by Hepatitis.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue. Some people or animals with hepatitis have no symptoms, whereas others develop yellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice), poor appetite, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Hepatitis is acute if it resolves within six months, and chronic if it lasts longer than six months. Acute hepatitis can resolve on its own, progress to chronic hepatitis, or (rarely) result in acute liver failure. Chronic hepatitis may progress to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), liver failure, and liver cancer.
Average 340,639 Deaths Noted by Parkinson’s Disease.
Parkinson’s disease (PD), or simply Parkinson’s is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms usually emerge slowly and, as the disease worsens, non-motor symptoms become more common. The most obvious early symptoms are tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking. Cognitive and behavioral problems may also occur with depression, anxiety, and apathy occurring in many people with PD. Parkinson’s disease dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease. Those with Parkinson’s can also have problems with their sleep and sensory systems. The motor symptoms of the disease result from the death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain, leading to a dopamine deficit. The cause of this cell death is poorly understood, but involves the build-up of misfolded proteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons. Collectively, the main motor symptoms are also known as “parkinsonism” or a “parkinsonian syndrome”.
Average 269,997 Deaths Noted by Nutritional Deficiencies.
Nutritional deficiency occurs when the body is not getting enough nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. There are a number of conditions that are caused by nutritional deficiency such as anemia. The body requires vitamins to stay healthy and function properly.
Average 231,771 Deaths Noted by Protein-Energy Malnutrition.
Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM), sometimes called protein-energy undernutrition (PEU), is a form of malnutrition that is defined as a range of conditions arising from coincident lack of dietary protein and/or energy (calories) in varying proportions. The condition has mild, moderate, and severe degrees.