Mongol conquests

The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history’s largest contiguous empire Mongol Empire which by 1300 covered large parts of Eurasia. Historians regard the Mongol devastation as one of the deadliest episodes in history. In addition, Mongol expeditions may have spread the bubonic plague across much of Eurasia, helping to spark the Black Death of the 14th century.The Mongol Empire developed in the course of the 13th century through a series of victorious campaigns throughout Asia, reaching Eastern Europe by the 1240s. In contrast with later “empires of the sea” such as the British, the Mongol Empire was a land power, fueled by the grass-foraging Mongol cavalry and cattle. Thus most Mongol conquest and plundering took place during the warmer seasons, when there was sufficient grazing for their herds. The rise of the Mongols was preceded by 15 years of wet and warm weather conditions from 1211-1225 that allowed favourable conditions for the breeding of horses, which greatly assisted their expansion.As the Mongol Empire began to fragment from 1260, conflict between the Mongols and Eastern European polities continued for centuries.

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